|Collins, etched chemigram 71914-5, 2014|
I began making chemigrams - of a sort that didn't have a name - about ten years ago, on a day like this one in the middle of an endless summer when I was fiddling around with my trays in the darkroom, bored with books and friends, just looking to pass the time. I knew nothing of the modern history of what I found myself doing and didn't care; in due course I would correct that, but for now I was simply lost at play.
I had seen, of course, a lot of abstract photography of the twentieth century, I was not naive. Coburn, Moholy-Nagy, Bruguiere, Kepes, Hajek-Halke were on my shelf, and I was spending a fair amount of time making and thinking about glassprints, those black-and-white pictures created on transparent material and contact-printed under an enlarger which have recently figured in this blog - and will do so again. And so it was that, like many before me, I stumbled onto the chemigram method by chance. I didn't know even that it had rules and methods, predecessors, active giants in the field, a history; so in my ignorance I kept exploring it to its perceived limits and stopped, dazzled like an early explorer on the verge of some dark continent, and not a little scared too.
I researched it - surely someone must have come this way before. Soon I found a man living in Belgium named Pierre Cordier who claimed to have invented chemigrams, or perhaps discovered them depending how inherent you believe chemigrams are to the world. Incredibly, he'd been making chemigrams for half a century; it was he who had bestowed on them a name, created a doctrine of method, and was their most fervent apostle. I climbed on a plane and was off to visit him.
|Collins, etched chemigram 72814-2, 2014|
The use of resists as a first step was key, a major innovation that, as a printmaker and etcher, I grasped immediately. The search for newer and better resists, or ones with special characteristics, began to consume me; tests were conducted, emails fired off, comparisons made; early posts to this blog in 2010 attest to that, and this endures as an important area of investigation. Today, Matt Higgins in Australia is at the forefront of that effort.
Other critical issues also occupied us. How to plan the incisions that you make in the resist, which cut to make first, then second and so on, and which one to start off in fixer and which to start in developer - these become the subject of many trials and reappraisals. Color on the other hand had evolved away from the fugacious tones of Cordier's great colorist period, the 70s and 80s. The fleeting hues of dye coupling agents were no longer on the market, while the article by Dominic Man-Kit Lam and Bryant Rossiter in Scientific American (265, 80-85, 1991) taught us about the Mie effect on color refraction in crystals and showed the way to potassium hydroxide and sodium thiocyanate as enhanced or supercharged developers and fixers, giving us a new source of color. No one told us we'd need a magician's wizardry to make them work, but they were still a possibility. So for several years that's what I was doing - my version of Cordier's teaching, with a few tweaks added.
|Collins, etched chemigram 71914-7, 2014|
And yet even then I was beginning to feel trapped by the very tools and approaches of the classic chemigram. I wanted to break out from them, from the patterns, the motifs, the graphic tricks that come so readily to it, but I didn't know how. Something was missing for me in chemigrams and I wasn't quite sure what that was - an authenticity maybe, a soul, or the mark of the hand as Rich would say? In despair I began abusing the photographic paper, punching holes in it, burning it; I tried bleaches and acids. Then in 2012 I went to Pittsburgh and learned the basics of mordançage. It wasn't until I found that the old books called it bleach-etch, a name I liked better - more gutsy and literal - that I cautiously began trying it on chemigrams, stripping off the emulsion and basically trampling and desecrating it, then rebuilding it as an alternative face. It's a daunting, unforgiving method, but in these pictures I'm showing you today - pictures both pristine and devastated - I began to see some of the pain and beauty I had sought. Chris Anderson came by the studio, saw them too, and dubbed them simply 'etched chemigrams'. Then she did some herself.
|Collins, etched chemigram 10715-3, 2015|
|Collins, etched chemigram 91714-3, 2014|
|Collins, etched chemigram 93014-1, 2014|
There exist other pathways from the rigors of the chemigram, this is just one. You will find the others on your own.